Payday Loans Payday Loans


2014 editors choice graphicOver the years it has been almost impossible to predict which hot new sire would be the next great sire of sons.  Just because a sire had a high index did not always mean that he was going to be a great sire of sons.  For instance, sires like Goldwyn produced great bull mothers but did not seem to make as much of an impact through their sons.  There have also been sires like O-Man that were great sires of sons, but did not seem to leave consistent bull mothers.  Fortunately, genomics at the chromosomal level has started to give us insight into which sires will make better sires of sons and which ones will be more impactful through their daughters.

Look to the past to predict the future

There is no question that Goldwyn has been one of the biggest impact sires over the past 20 years.  But for all the great daughters he has left, he has not had the same dominant performance through his sons.  Recent analysis by the Bullvine actually starts to explain why. Using the Chromosomal Predicted Transmitting Abilities tool on the Council for Dairy Cattle Breeding’s website we took a look at the top 10 Goldwyn daughters with EBV and genomic tests and his top 10 sons.  The following is what we found.

Table 1 – BRAEDALE GOLDWYN’s genetic contribution to his top progeny

$NM Sire Dam %Sire %Dam












It is interesting to note that Goldwyn was much more dominant (11%) in passing his genetics on to his daughters than he was to his sons.  When you look deeper at this, you will actually find that Goldwyn himself actually received 64% of his genetics from his mother, BRAEDALE BALER TWINE VG-86-2YR-CAN 33*.


Click on image to enlarge

In order to put this into a relative comparison, we decided to look at a sire that has been the opposite scenario, O-BEE MANFRED JUSTICE.  O-Man has been one of the greatest sires of sons of the past 20 years, but not as dominant on the female side.  When we look at Justice’s top 10 daughters and sons we find the following.

Table 2 – O-BEE MANFRED JUSTICE’s genetic contribution to his top progeny

$NM Sire Dam %Sire %Dam












It is interesting to see that when looking at Justice’s progeny results he played a far more significant role on average, 68% of the genetic contribution to his progeny, than Goldwyn’s 59%.  This is especially true where Justice contributed 12% more to his top sons than Goldwyn did. This is not surprising when you notice that O-Man himself received a much larger contribution (48%) of his genetics from his father, as compared to Goldwyn’s 36%.


Click on image to enlarge

Who’s Next?

Based on these trends, when looking at some of the top genomic sires from the past 4 years, we find that sires like Mogul, and Epic will be more impactful as sires of sons than say sires like Supersire and Numero Uno.  This is based on the proportions of their current chromosomes coming from their sires and their dams.

As far as current top genomic sires go, DE-SU 11756 OCTAVIAN-ET, SEAGULL-BAY SILVER-ET and MR DELICIOUS COIN 15006 will be more impactful through their sons.  Sires like MORNINGVIEW MCC KINGBOY and EDG JACEY MCCUT 8396-ET will probably leave more bull mothers, rather than sires of sons.  Again, this is based on the proportions of their current chromosomes coming from their sires and their dams.

The Bullvine Bottom Line.

For years, we have wondered why some sires seemed unable to pass on their great genetics to their sons.  Now at the chromosome level we know why.  Some sires are just more dominant about passing their genetics onto their progeny than others.  (Read more:  The Genetic Genius of Darwin, Mendel and Hunt – Genetic Transmission and the Holstein)  A sire’s ability to pass his genetics onto his progeny especially his sons, has a huge impact on whether or not he will be an impactful sire of sons.  For bulls like Goldwyn, this inability means he has fewer legacy sons, while Justice’s ability to dominantly pass on his genetics has contributed to his sons reading like a who’s who list.

The Dairy Breeders No BS Guide to Genomics


Not sure what all this hype about genomics is all about?

Want to learn what it is and what it means to your breeding program?

Download this free guide.





There is no question that when it comes to understanding what cows will transmit and what cows will not, it is an enigma wrapped in a conundrum.  There is much that we don’t know and some would argue it is not meant to be known.  The problem is, for those of us with a passion for breeding great dairy cattle, we want to know it all.  For that I turn to the three greatest genetic geniuses in the history of the world, Darwin, Mendel and Hunt (No they are not a law firm).

Charles Robert Darwin He established that all species of life have descended over time from common ancestors, and proposed the scientific theory that this branching pattern of evolution resulted from a process that he called natural selection, in which the struggle for existence has a similar effect to the artificial selection involved in selective breeding.

Charles Darwin

Ask anyone in the world to name a geneticist and the first name that comes to mind has to be Charles Darwin.  No better demonstration of Darwin’s theory of evolution exists in the world than in dairy cattle breeding.  While there is no question that artificial selection and selective breeding exist on a daily basis, a cow’s ability to reproduce and produce milk leads to a natural level of selection that epitomizes Darwin’s theory.  “The laws governing inheritance,” Darwin wrote, “are for the most part unknown.”  Moreover, while many modern geneticists have theories about the tendencies of the modern Holstein cow, their genetic transmission pathways in large part remain a mystery to this day.

Gregor Mendel

Gregor Mendel

Then along came Gregor Mendel who introduced the concept of “genes” to explain heritability.  Mendel changed the whole way we look at breeding when he introduced the theory that the chromosome is the carrier of genetic traits.  He also explained why a trait can disappear in one generation and reappear in the next and why these traits occur in a three-to-one ratio.  One of Mendel’s disciples, three quarters of a century later, was Thomas B. Macaulay.  Macaulay conducted his own studies, on his Mount Victoria Farms (Read more: Mount Victoria Farms – The art and science of great breeding).

Thomas Hunt Morgan

Thomas Hunt Morgan

Then along came Hunt. Well, more specifically, Thomas Hunt Morgan, but my ego wouldn’t let this go as my name is Andrew Morgan Hunt (Read more about my ego: I’m Sorry But I’ve Had Just About Enough Of… ).  In research that is now reproduced by grade 9 science students around the world, Morgan introduced the concept of X and Y-chromosomes.  Morgan concluded that a female has two X chromosomes and that males have both X and Y-chromosomes.  He also posited that the male of the species, because of the presence of the Y chromosome, transmits differently than the female.

To get a better understanding of this, let’s look at this from both sides of the story.

His side of the story (XY)

If you look at Holstein bulls throughout history you find four distinct patterns:

  1. Great daughters but no legacy sons
    These are the bulls that sired amazing brood cows but none of their sons were able to continue their genetic legacy.  Examples are Hanover-Hill Triple Threat, Carlin-M Ivanhoe Bell, and Braedale Goldwyn.  They all were able to sire brood cow daughters beyond compare, but no real sons to advance that genetic legacy.  Why did these sires seem to produce better on the female side than that of the male?  For that we need to turn to Morgan and his X and Y chromosome theory.  Since the Y chromosome is the only one that is inherited solely via the paternal  line, this leads  some geneticists to believe that it carries little genetic information, and as a result  a great sires genetic legacy rest more with his daughters than with his sons.  Therefore, with this first group of sires it is thought that much of their genetics were transmitted on the X chromosome rather than the Y.
  2. Great sons but not as many brood cows
    Bulls that sired outstanding sons but never produced a top daughter.  A couple of great examples of this are Montvic Rag Apple Sovereign, Maizefield Bellwood and O-Bee Manfred Justice.  All of these sires have left outstanding sons, but are not found as often in the maternal sire stack of the great sires.  There is no question as to their genetic contribution to the breed, but it was more as a sire of sons than their ability to leave an equal number of brood cows.
  3. Sons and daughters both extraordinary
    These are the sires that have gone down in history as the all-time greats.  Sires like Johanna Rag Apple Pabst, Governor of Carnation, Montvic Chieftain, Wisconsin Admiral Burke Lad, A.B.C. Reflection Sovereign, Round Oak Rag Apple Elevation, Pawnee Farm Alrinda Chief, Walkway Chief Mark, Hanoverhill Starbuck, Madawaska Aerostar and Maughlin Storm.  These are the bulls that not only displayed personal greatness but were also able to transmit both outstanding brood cows as well as legacy sons.
  4. Sons and daughters that were inferior
    Sons and daughters that are both below average.  These bulls left inferior daughters and as a result were never even given the chance to produce sons.  Bulls in this category are too numerous to mention and loads of their daughters go to the slaughterhouses every day.  No explanation necessary other than a lack of genetic merit and here enters the need for genomics (Read more: The Truth About Genomic Indexes – “Show Me” That They Work).

Her side the story (XX)

The female side of the story uses the same four distinct groups.

  1. Great daughters but no legacy sons
    These are cows with outstanding female descendants but undistinguished males.  Great examples of these are the cow families of Hanover Hill Papoose, Krull Broker Elegance and Plunshanski Chief Faith.  They all were able to leave outstanding female descendants generation after generation, but were never really able to accomplish the same feat on the male side of the story.
  2. Great sons but not as many brood cows
    These are the cows with potent transmitting sons, but daughters who didn’t outperform the average.  Examples of these are Wylamyna Tidy Kathleen (dam of Sir Bess Tidy and Sir Bess Ormsby Tidy Fobes) Lakefield Fobes Delight (dam of Lakefield Fond Hope, Lakefield Fond Delight Fobes and Carnation Royal Master) and Pawnee Farm Glenvue Beauty (dam of Pawnee Farm Arlinda Chief).  All of these cows had outstanding maternal lines but for some reason were just not able to transmit that legacy through their daughters.
  3. Sons and daughters both extraordinary
    Among the females in this category are Glenridge Citation Roxy, Mil-R-Mor Roxette, Comestar Laurie Sheik, Braedale Gypsy Grand and Snow-N Denises Dellia.
  4. Sons and daughters that were inferior
    Cows who, in terms of influence, failed to produce anything worthwhile.  Blame it on lack of genetics, bad breeding, improper management, or just bad luck, these cows just didn’t influence the breed. We have all seen examples.

The Bullvine Bottom Line

There has never been a clear explanation of why some bloodlines seem to transmit better through maternal lines, others through the paternal, and still others do well in both.  Even genomics does not answer this.  There are high genomic animals that still have these same tendencies.  Maybe if we could genomic test the genes on each chromosome we might find the answers?  Until then Genetic Transmission in the Holstein Cow will remain a mystery.

To read more about this get a copy of The Holstein History by Edward Morwick and read the chapter on Inheritance Patterns.

The Dairy Breeders No BS Guide to Genomics


Not sure what all this hype about genomics is all about?

Want to learn what it is and what it means to your breeding program?

Download this free guide.




Is Man-O-Man Really Going to be a Sire of Sons?

Wednesday, December 5th, 2012

This week LONGS-LANG OMAN OMAN (Man-O-Man) received outstanding indexes around the world (#6 TPI and #1 LPI) much like the rumours before this proof round had predicted (Read more – Man-O-Man Will He Turn Platinum?). Now many breeders  are again considering him for their breeding programs.  While we can totally support the principle of using the best sire to produce the next generation of AI bulls, we are not sure that Man-O-Man will be a great sire of sons.  Here’s our reasoning.

When you take a close look at Man-O-Man’s progeny, you find that 6 of his daughters worldwide have a higher gLPI  than he has. They are COMESTAR LAUTAMAI MAN O MAN, STANTONS MANOMAN EZRA, SEAGULL-BAY SHAUNA SATURN, BENNER MANOMAN JANESSE, DONNANDALE MANOMAN JAKARTA and STE ODILE MANOMAN MODEL SAPHIR. Three of these daughters have Estimated Breeding Values and three are younger and have Parent Averages.  What really stands out and catches our eye is that none of his sons (PA or EBV) have a higher gLPI than he has.  In fact  his highest gLPI son is almost 5% lower on his indexes than he is. It begs the question, “Will Man-O-Man ever have a son that indexes higher than himself?”

Proven Track Record

When we look at the current CDN Sires of Top 100 LPI Bulls, we find the following sires are proving themselves as sires of sons.

    the sire of Man-O-Man, has 6 sons in the top 100 in Canada with an average LPI of 2496.  This is by far the highest LPI average for sons! O Man has 15 genomically tested daughters worldwide higher than himself and 18 genomically tested sons worldwide  indexing higher than himself.(Ratio of 45% daughters to 55% sons).
    has the next highest son average LPI at 2137 on 11 sons.  Worldwide Bolton has 141 genomically tested daughters and 52 genomically tested sons higher than himself. (Ratio of 73% daughters to 27% sons).
    follows next.  He has 9 sons averaging 2023 LPI. On a global basis Baxter has 292 genomically tested females  and 191 genomically tested sons higher than himself.  (Ratio of 60% daughters to 40% sons).

These previous three sires have produced BOTH daughters and sons, who have surpassed them. Let’s look at another list that is producing top bull mothers but who have yet to produce a legacy son.

    139 daughters genomically tested worldwide higher than himself
    36 sons genomically tested worldwide higher than himself
    (Ratio of 80% daughters to 20% sons)
    91 daughters genomically tested worldwide higher than himself
    39 sons genomically tested worldwide higher than himself
    (Ratio of 70% daughters to 30% sons)
    379 daughters genomically tested worldwide higher than himself
    84 sons genomically tested worldwide higher than himself
    (Ratio of 82% daughters to 18% sons)

The anomaly is Bolton.  He ranks high for progeny average LPI on both the CDN List for Top 100 LPI Bulls (#2) and on the Sire of Top 1000 GLPI Cows (#3). However, his ratio indicates that he will work slightly better as the sire of bull mothers.

The Bullvine Bottom Line

The past foretells the future. Instead of running out to use Man-O-Man to produce that next great sire of sons, he is better used to generate that next great bull mother.  Also, instead of looking to use Man-O-Man sons as the next great sires of AI bulls, breeders  should perhaps  look at sons out of Man-O-Man daughters . History has shown that some bulls are meant to be bull mothers (Goldwyn, Planet and Shottle) and some bulls are more destined to be  sires of sons (AltaBaxter, and Oman). Man-O-Man’s numbers would indicate that he is going to be a better producer of bull mothers.